darius the great
Ancient History Encyclopedia, 10 Apr 2017. The two opposing armies met on the fields of Marathon in 490 BCE. The conquest of Greece was a logical step to protect Persian rule over the Greeks of Asia Minor from interference by their European kinsmen. However, Darius faced unforeseen difficulties.
By 519 bc, when the third rising in Susiana was put down, he had established his authority in the east. Thus, the approaches to Greece were in Persian hands, as was control of the Black Sea grain trade through the straits, the latter being of major importance to the Greek economy. Carved into a cliff face 300 feet above the Royal Road of the Achaemenids, the text was not legible to the passersby, although the images of Gautama being subjected certainly were. The Greeks took advantage of this situation; as the two armies approached each other at a casual pace, the Greeks suddenly broke into a sprint.
"Darius I." Cristian, Radu. Darius' rule was marked by vast military expeditions. His military conquest expanded the boundaries of Persia, and internally, his reforms improved the vitality of the empire. In Susa, he built a palace complex in the northern part of the city, which became his favourite residence. He himself, however, belonged to a collateral branch of the royal family, and, as his father and grandfather were alive at his accession, it is unlikely that he was next in line to the throne. Darius was the son of Hystaspes, the satrap (provincial governor) of Parthia. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Babylonia rebelled twice and Susiana three times. Darius had at least 18 children. Seeking other allies, although he failed to acquire the support of Sparta, he managed to secure the aid of Athens and Eretria, both providing troops and ships. Contributor to. Some modern scholars consider that he invented the story of Gaumata in order to justify his actions and that the murdered king was indeed the son of Cyrus. Last modified April 10, 2017. Gaumata was finally assassinated, leaving the Persian empire without a leader; the conspirators had to decide the future of the empire. Darius was born in c. 550 BCE, the oldest son of Hystapes and Rhodugune. by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA). This caught the Persians off guard, and before they knew it they were forced to battle in full hand-to-hand combat. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. In the Bīsitūn inscription Darius defended this deed and his own assumption of kingship on the grounds that the usurper was actually Gaumata, a Magian, who had impersonated Bardiya after Bardiya had been murdered secretly by Cambyses. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Both Darius and his son Xerxes participated in the Greco-Persian or Persian Wars. After the death of Cambyses in the summer of 522 bc, Darius hastened to Media, where, in September, with the help of six Persian nobles, he killed Bardiya (Smerdis), another son of Cyrus, who had usurped the throne the previous March. Written by Radu Cristian, published on 10 April 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. His policies and building projects helped fortify his vast empire and enhance trade throughout. In 519 bc he attacked the Scythians east of the Caspian Sea and a few years later conquered the Indus Valley. Darius saw that the cuneiform text was widely circulated throughout the Persian Empire. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Cambyses II returned to his country seven months later only to find that he could not take his throne back. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Darius-I, International World History Project - Biography of Darius The Great, Encyclop�dia Iranica - Biography of Darius I the Great, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Darius I, Heritage History - Biography of Darius the Great, Darius I - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Darius I - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Meanwhile, the Athenians started to prepare for war. In the Bīsitūn inscription he records that in 19 battles he defeated nine rebel leaders, who appear as his captives on the accompanying relief.
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